Systematics and evolution
"It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change." - Charles Darwin
Insects are one of the most diverse organisms on earth. Their ancestors likely originated at the same time as terrestrial plants, about 480 million years ago. Study on insect evolution will focus on the process of gradual change during new species being, while study on insect systematics will provide an information to support relationships between modern life form. Multidisciplinary approach such as morphology, molecular genetics, cytogenetics, sexual compatibility, chemoecology, are currently used for distinguishing forms or species. Understand of systematic and evolution among various forms or species will shed light on effective and sustainable pest management.
International Plant Protection Convention (2019) ISPM 27 Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests DP 29: Bactrocera dorsalis. Rome, International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 34 pp.
Schutze MK, Aketarawong N, Amornsak W, Armstrong KF, Augustinos AA, Barr N, et al (2015) Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data. Systematic Entomology, 40(2):456-71
Thanaphum S, Thaenkham U (2003) Relationships and forms within the Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) taxon based on Heat Shock Protein Cognate Sequences. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96(1): 44-53.